Glossary of Terms

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Edge Cracks These are longitudinal cracks a foot or so from the edge of the pavement, with or without transverse cracks branching towards the shoulder.
Edge Joint Cracks This is a separation of the joint between the pavement and the shoulder.
Embankment Soil bank which supports the road.
Emergency Repairs Anything that has to be done to allow free flow of traffic. These are carried out following heavy damage, caused by floods, hurricanes, etc. The highway is usually particularly or fully blocked and it is important to carry out urgent works to re-open the highway to traffic, make it safe and prevent further damage.  
Encroachment Any permanent structure, etc., that comes within the reservation for the main road.
Erosion Removal of earth by wind, rain or flowing water.
Excavation A cavity in the ground caused by digging.
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