Glossary of Terms

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Scour Holes in the river bed, bank or pavement caused by the flow of the river / water. Damage to pavement or road surface by water.  
Secondary Roads - Class B Roads Roads of regional importance. Connect with arterial roads. Traffic volumes of 500 – 2000 vehicles daily.
Settlement Downward movement of a structure. The vertical displacement of the ground surface.  
Sheet Patching A spread that covers a large area of potholes on the road.
Shingle An aggregate material found in rivers and waterways consisting of various sizes of stones.
Shoulder Width It is the minimum width of shoulders which should be provided on either side of the road, between the side drain and the road pavement.
Shoulders The area between the outer edge of the carriageway and shoulder breakpoint.
Signs Stop, give way, speed limit, no parking, pedestrians, keep left / right, no entry, one way, no stopping, etc.
Silt Soil debris.
Single Lane When traffic is confined to vehicles passing a particular point in one pass.
Soak-away An area prepared to drain water into the soil.
Soil The ground or top covering of the earth in which plants grow.
Stopping or Sight Distance The distance at any point along a road a driver should be able to see which will enable him to stop the vehicle. The distance is calculated by the time between which the driver sees the obstacle in front and the time he stops the vehicle.
Storm Water Any water that collects on the road surface as a result of heavy rainfall.
Structures Retaining walls, culverts, bridges, etc.
Sub-base Material put on the sub-grade.
Sub-grade That area of the surface which is prepared to receive a sub-base.
Surface Drainage This involves the removal of rain water that falls directly on the road surface or the interception and removal of water coming onto the road from adjacent terrain.
Surface Dressing A protective and wearing layer. It adds negligible load bearing strength to a pavement. It is only suitable for roads with lighter traffic or as a non-skid surface on highly trafficked but strong pavement.
Surveyor Person who goes out on site to ensure that necessary level and gradients are in place, e.g. Super elevation, camber, etc.
Sweeping, Cleaning or Clearing Cleaning and sweeping of road surface to remove silt, litter, etc.
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